Due to expected capacity bottlenecks of exploited microwave technologies, feeder links for data relay or broadband access systems will require the implementation of high capacity optical communication links between space and the ground. In this context, it is necessary to detail the investigation of the optical technologies and techniques that could enable the transmission of high data rates at optical frequencies through the Earth’s atmosphere, with regard to all kinds of the atmospheric phenomena. In particular, the adverse effects of atmospheric turbulence fading are of special relevance to optical communication systems for ground-to-space uplink applications. Although previous studies and experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of such optical links at low data rate, research is still needed to identify technical solutions and strategies adapted to the specific constraints imposed to these high-speed links in order to ensure the required level of performance. Against this background, various test benches have been developed to characterize different modulations and detection techniques for optical communication systems prior to be incorporated in the conceptual design of future 1-Tb/s ground-space optical links. The expected performances of such experimental demonstration are derived based on simulation models taking into account the atmospheric turbulence effects, in order to prove the feasibility of reliable ground-to-space high date rate optical communication links. The main objective of this thesis is the investigation of the free space optical communication through the atmosphere under different turbulence regimes. Both of simulation and experimentation of such communications are considered and the associated results are detailed.