Dr BENSOUSSAN Alain, IRT Saint Exupery, Toulouse (France)
He represented Thales Alenia Space at EUROSPACE organization, nominated by this organization to support the Space Components User interests at ESA – PSWG (European Space Agency – Parts Policy and Standards Working Group) since more than 15 years. Dr Alain Bensoussan is a Senior Member of IEEE.
Dr MAKASHEVA Kremena, CNRS, LAPLACE laboratory, Toulouse (France)
Her research activities in LAPLACE now are directed to study of reactive plasmas and the design and study of nanostructured materials by plasma for different applications. Recently she served as General Chair of the 11th IEEE Nanotechnology Materials and Devices Conference (IEEE NMDC 2016) in Toulouse.
Prof. BERNSTEIN Joseph, Ariel University, Ariel (Israel)
Prof. Joseph B. Bernstein specializes in several areas of nano-scale micro-electronic device reliability and physics of failure research, including packaging, system reliability modelling, gate oxide integrity, radiation effects, Flash NAND and NOR memory, SRAM and DRAM, MEMS and laser programmable metal interconnect. He directs the Laboratory for Failure Analysis and Reliability of Electronic Systems, teaches VLSI design courses and heads the VLSI program at Ariel University. His Laboratory is a center of research activity dedicated to serving the needs of manufacturers of highly reliable electronic systems using commercially available off the shelf parts. Research areas include thermal, mechanical, and electrical interactions of failure mechanisms of ultra-thin gate dielectrics, Non-Volatile memory, advanced metallization and power devices. He also works extensively with the semiconductor industry on projects relating to failure analysis, defect avoidance, programmable interconnect used in Field Programmable Analog Arrays and repair in microelectronic circuits and packaging. Professor Bernstein was a Fulbright Senior Researcher/Lecturer at Tel Aviv University in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Physical Electronics. Professor Bernstein is a senior member of IEEE.
Reliability Prediction Based on Multiple Accelerated Life Tests
To this day, the users of our most sophisticated electronic systems that include opto-electronic, photonic, MEMS device, etc. are expected to rely on a simple reliability value (FIT) published by the supplier. The FIT is determined today in the product qualification process by use of HTOL or other standardized test, depending on the product. The manufacturer reports a zero-failure result from the given conditions of the single-point test and uses a single-mechanism model to fit an expected MTTF at the operator’s nominal expected ‘use’ conditions.
The zero-failure qualification is well known as a very expensive exercise providing nearly no useful information to the user. As a result, designers often rely on HALT testing and on handbooks such as Fides, Telecordia or Mil Handbook 217 to estimate the failure rate of their products, knowing full well that these approaches act as guidelines rather than as a reliable prediction tool.
Furthermore, with zero failure required for the “pass” criterion as well as the poor correlation of expensive HTOL data to test and field failures, there is no communication for the designers to utilize this knowledge in order to build in reliability or to trade it off with performance. Prediction is not really the goal of these tests; however, current practice is to assign an expected failure rate, FIT, based only on this test even if the presumed acceleration factor is not correct.
We present, in this tutorial, a simple way to predictive reliability assessment using the common language of Failure In Time or Failure unIT (FIT). We will evaluate the goal of finding MTBF and evaluate the wisdom of various approaches to reliability prediction. Our goal is to predict reliability based on the system environment including space, military and commercial. It is our intent to show that the era of confidence in reliability prediction has arrived and that we can make reasonable reliability predictions from qualification testing at the system level. Our research will demonstrate the utilization of physics of failure models in conjunction with qualification testing using our Multiple Temperature Operational Life (MTOL) matrix solution to make cost-effective reliability predictions that are meaningful and based on the system operating conditions. Furthermore, we will show experimental evidence that the thermal activation energy is non-constant over the operational temperatures as well as a non-constant voltage acceleration factor in standard DSM devices.
In this seminar, you will learn:
- Understanding of constant-rate failure prediction (MTBF and FIT)
- Limitations of the standard Single-Failure-Mechanism approach
- How accelerated tests can be designed for multiple mechanisms
- How multiple-mechanism models can be linearly combined using FIT
- How this linear combination can make realistic reliability prediction
- Experimental verification of non-constant activation energy in DSM
Why Weibull ?… Why Not !
All reliability professionals are required to report reliability in simple-to-understand yet meaningful metrics. Typically, mean time to fail (MTTF) or defective parts per million (DPPM) are used by many industrial practitioners as a way to communicate the calculated reliability of a product, device or system. Most metrics for reliability assume a constant hazard rate or constant failure rate statistical approach. This is mathematically described as a time invariant Poisson process. This is exactly the “exponential” reliability model as is well known by most industries and is the working assumption when using MTTF or other such metrics.
In reality, everyone knows that some equipment have wearout or fatigue mechanisms that accumulate over time and makes the likelihood of an older product inherently more susceptible to failure than a new piece of equipment. Similarly, companies are constantly working on reliability growth and improvement with each generation making the decision to upgrade implicitly a decision to improve long-term reliability. Also, defects are often seen during product introduction and decreasing failure rates are observed.
This tutorial will focus on the mathematical basis for exponential reliability models and how they are justified by physics of failure and basic assumptions of thermodynamics. The physics and statistics are then extended to justify using the Weibull distribution to describe more accurately the failure distribution in the field. However, this information is often lost in communication since MTTF is not appropriate once the Poisson model is no longer used. Furthermore, Weibull describes both decreasing as well as increasing failure rates and the information contained therein is lost when converted to a single MTTF parameter.
This tutorial will develop the understanding needed in order to decide when it is appropriate and when it is not appropriate to use Weibull statistics as opposed to Poisson statistics. Participants will learn the tools to develop their own insight as to when the MTTF statistic is meaningful and can be used for making proper reliability decisions. Through some simple mathematical formalisms and basic understanding for thermodynamics, participants of this webinar will learn for themselves how Weibull is often a useful measure for describing reliability and how it is often inappropriately used. Our goal will be to clarify any confusion that exists as to the proper way to report reliability using single statistical metrics or when more sophisticated metrics are required.
Prof. CAHAY Marc, Cincinnati University, Cincinnati (OH), USA
APS has different sections, and Cahay was elected Fellow by the Forum on Industrial & Applied Physics, whose main objective is to enhance society’s ability to meet the needs of the industrial and applied physics community and to help society take advantage of the evolving opportunities in the practice and application of physics. Only 0.5 percent of APS members reach the status of Fellow. As the largest association of American physicists, typically only members with pioneering contributions in their field get elected. APS states, Cahay has been elected for “his seminal contributions to the understanding of transport properties of mesoscopic systems and for pioneering work in spintronic devices.”
Basic principles transport in nanostructures (semiconductors and topological insulators). Introduction to quantum effects in nanostructures. Spintronics, quantum information, physics on nanostructures.
Introduction to semiconductor nanostructures and basic and advanced solid state physics for engineers
The Landauer-Büttiker formalism has been the most widely used approach to study carrier transport through nanoscale devices. This lecture will focus on an introduction to this formalism and its implementation using the Green’s Function technique . This will be followed by a brief introduction to the field of spintronics  and an illustration of the use of the Green’s function formalism to study transport in spin-based devices. The successful implementation of Spin Field Effect Transistors (SpinFETs)  can only be realized if injection, manipulation, and detection of the electron spin can be performed by purely electrical means . Several attempts towards this goal have been reported over the last ten years using devices such as quantum point contacts (QPCs) and quantum dots. In this talk we will review some the most recent work in these areas using QPCs with top and in-plane side gates [5,6]. These new developments could lead to the realization of an all-electric Datta-Das SpinFET  which could be used in the design of all-electric spin-based sensors, spin filters and interferometers, with potential for multilevel logic circuits and data storage applications. They could also be used as building blocks in architectures for future quantum information and quantum computing applications.
However, the large scale integration of the all-electric SpinFET will require an assessment of their reliability, and recent conductance measurements on large arrays of nominally identical QPCs show that this task still remains a formidable technological challenge [8-10].
Dr CABARBAYE André, CNES, Toulouse (France)
He has acquired expertise in systems optimization under operational reliability performances constraints and in complex probability models adjustment from experience feedback data.
He also founded the company Cab Innovation, which develops and sells software tools of simulation, optimization and risk management (Supercabpro workshop) and publishes specialized books in these fields.
Reliability assessment of components and systems
This course focuses on methods and tools for calculating reliability of components and systems. It especially addresses:
- The adjustment of accelerated models of reliability or degradation from experience feedback data or tests,
- Static and dynamic modelling of systems and operational dependability assessment,
- Optimization of systems to meet dependability objectives.
Prof. CHASKIEL Patrick, CERTOP laboratory, University of Toulouse, Toulouse (France)
He has been working on the technological risks topic for many years. He was in charge of the risks program in the “Maison des Sciences de l’Homme et de la Société” (CNRS and University of Toulouse) until 2017. Since he was appointed by Toulouse University as the responsible of the social aspects of the NanoInnov program in 2009, he has developed many researches dealing with nanos. He has been responsible of, or contributed to, several research operations supported by the Minister of Ecology, the Anses, the CNRS, the Stae Foundation, and the region of Occitanie. He was or is member of working groups about the risks of nanos (Anses) or the labelling for nanos (Minister of Ecology). He is working with scientists (physics, chemistry or biology) on nano applications, considering the fact that nanos is the opportunity to enable inter-scientific cooperation and also relations with civil society organizations, especially NGOs.
To Benefit or not from Nanos: That is (also) a Sociological Question
Since the beginning of the ambitious policies of nanotechnologies and nanosciences, controversies on nanos have developed in many countries. This is not surprising, owing to previous ecological trends focused on risks and the publicly displayed immoderate ambitions of these policies, as summarized by the National Nanotechnology Initiative.
Facing these disputes, scientific or political institutions have classically proposed to improve communication between stakeholders, particularly by insisting on the necessity of adopting a benefits/risks approach. However, to be sustainable, this approach should be somewhat theorized, but also has to be adjusted to the specificity of nanos, particularly because risks are almost unknown, and real benefits are mainly to be determined yet.
The purpose of this lecture is to examine the reasons why the notion of “benefits from nanos” is much more complex than generally supposed and how this complexity could be positively used.
Prof. CIAPPA Mauro, ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Zurich (Switzerland)
He has published more than 150 papers in the field of reliability physics, high-resolution techniques for 2-D dopant profiling, high-resolution metrology by electron beams, dosimetry, and thermal management of power devices. Dr. Ciappa was awarded the IEEE Third Millennium Medal for his contributions to the reliability physics field.
Failure Mechanisms of Power Devices for Traction Application and Related Lifetime Prediction Techniques
The end-of-life period of complex multi-chip modules is often defined by themo-mechanics related failure mechanisms. The time-to-the-failure (lifetime) for these wear-out mechanisms is normally estimated on the base of deterministic models, which are calibrated by data extracted from accelerated power cycling experiments. Furthermore, these estimates are referred to a given application profile, which is specific to the technical system under consideration (electric/hybrid car, wind turbines, etc.). Common lifetime prediction models are often based either on well-known expressions for low-cycle fatigue, or on the integration of simplified constitutive equations.
After reviewing the most frequent failure mechanisms in power modules, the lecture will deal with the main approaches to lifetime prediction. The presentation will point out the major limitations occurring in practical applications, in particular for electric and hybrid vehicles.
Dr COLLAERT Nadine, IMEC, Leuven (Belgium)
Dr Nadine Collaert received the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the ESAT Department, KU Leuven, Belgium, in 1995 and 2000, respectively. Since then, she has been involved in the theory, design, and technology of FinFET devices, emerging memory devices, and transducers for biomedical applications and the integration and characterization of biocompatible materials e.g. carbon-based materials. From 2012 until April 2016 she was program manager of the imec LOGIC program, focusing on high mobility channels, TFET and nanowires. Since April 2016 she is a distinguished member of technical staff, responsible for the research on novel CMOS scaling approaches based on heterogeneous integration of new materials with Si and new material-enabled device and system approaches to increase functionality. She has authored or co-authored more than 300 papers in international journals and conference proceedings, and she holds more than 10 patents in the field of device design and process technology. She has been a member of the CDT committee of the IEDM conference and she is still a member of the Program Committees of the international conferences ESSDERC, ULIS/EUROSOI and VLSI Technology Symposium.
Device architectures and technologies for recent and future CMOS applications
In this lecture, we will review the current logic scaling trends and what are the possible technology paths forward for the 5nm technology node and beyond. Starting from FinFET, we will review alternative architectures like lateral and vertical nanowires which could offer improvements in both power consumption and performance over FinFET at more scaled dimensions. Next to that, the advantages and challenges of high mobility materials will be discussed and new beyond CMOS switches like tunnel FETs, Negative Capacitance FETs or spin logic will be presented to extend the device roadmap.
Finally, recent trends towards more device diversification to enable a wide variety of applications demands innovations across different layers, from technology up to the system level. We will address the challenges but also the many opportunities that this heterogeneous integration can provide.
Dr DIAHAM Sombel & Dr LOCATELLI Marie-Laure, LAPLACE Laboratory, University of Toulouse, Toulouse (France)
Dr Sombel Diaham received the M.Sc. degree in 2005 and Ph.D. degree in 2007 in Electrical Engineering from Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, France. In 2008, he joined the LAPLACE Laboratory as Assistant Professor and is now Associate Professor. His research work deals with polymers (polyimide, parylene, silicone gel, epoxy resin) for HV/HT power electronics insulation. His interests concern the materials from processing, dielectric characterizations, aging to physical understanding (charge transport, space charge and breakdown mechanisms). Since 2009, he works on nanodielectrics for HV insulating applications.
He is author of 36 papers in international peer reviewed scientific journals, 54 papers in international conferences, 2 book chapters and 2 patents. He is a board member of the IEEE CEIDP conference.
Dielectric materials for power devices : from homogeneous to nanocomposite materials
Power semiconductor devices, with voltage ratings from the order of 100 V to several kV, are at the heart of the power electronics conversion, allowing the control of the current and voltage waveforms as required for a given use. Different insulating materials are present within a power component ensuring its proper operation. It is particularly the case for the silicon dioxide (SiO2) for the silicon and silicon carbide power insulated gate transistors, (for instance MOSFETs and IGBTs which are the mostly used ones). For the gate oxide of gallium nitride power devices, high-k dielectrics, especially alumina or hafnium dioxide, are also involved. Surface passivation, and intermetallic layer are the other functions given to insulating materials, for electrical, chemical and mechanical protections of single or multi-chip devices. In these cases, thin inorganic (SiO2, Si3N4, SIPOS) and polymeric (polyimides) films are commonly used. The physical properties and the impact of these latter ones on the power device operation and its limitations will be described, as well as their manufacturing processes. In the same time, techniques employed for their electrical characterization will be described, including small signal techniques (dielectric spectroscopy) and high electric field ones (dielectric strength measurement).
Finally, the recent interest of nanocomposite polymers as advanced insulators could help to improve the performance of wide band gap power devices. They will be presented from nanoparticles choice, process elaboration to enhanced electrical properties.
Prof. GRISOLLIA Jérémy, LPCNO, University of Toulouse & Prof. CLAVERY Alain, CEMES-CNRS, Toulouse (France)
Prof. Alain Claverie obtained the Dipl.-Ing. degree in Solid State Physics in 1981 from the National Institute for Applied Science (INSA) then his PhD in 1984 from the University Paul Sabatier both located in Toulouse. From 1985, he was CNRS Staff Scientist working on the TEM characterization of ion implanted materials. From 1988 to 1993, he has been working abroad notably in India (CSIR Chandigarh) and California (UC Berkeley).
Alain’s interest ranges from the nucleation and growth of extended defects and nanoprecipitates, strain and diffusion anomalies in semiconductors and low energy ion implantation. He is the author or co-author of more than 270 publications in international journals (h factor=38), the editor of the book “Transmission electron microscopy in micro/nanoelectronics (Ed. ISTE Wiley London 2012) and gave more than 60 invited talks in international conferences. From 2000 to 2004, he was the coordinator of the EC supported NEON (nanoparticles for electronics) a Project aimed at engineering nanocrystals for memory applications. Appointed as “Directeur de Recherches” in 2002, he founded and led the “nanoMaterials Group” at CEMES where about 30 permanent scientists worked on the synthesis, the physics, the characterization and the integration of nano-crystals and ultrathin films in systems for applications in electronics, magnetism and optics. From January 2011 to December 2015, Alain was the Director of CEMES, a leading laboratory of 170 people owned by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientfique (CNRS) in the field of nanosciences and nanomaterials (www.cemes.fr). Today, Alain is also a private scientific consultant for several companies, notably the newly founded “Institut de Recherche Technologique” Antoine de Saint Exupéry devoted to aeronautics and space.
Present and future of digital memories (Prof. Alain Claverie & Prof. Jérémie Grisolia)
This lecture will be divided into two parts. The first one will deal with the description, working principle, limitations and possible evolutions of present memories (DRAM, SRAM, Flash, MRAM). The second part will deal with emerging devices using totally new concepts and/or new materials and aiming at finally building some “universal memories” (PCRAM, RRAM, NEMS).
Nanoparticles based smart sensors (Prof. Jérémie Grisolia)
In this lecture, we will show how to fabricate low-cost, high-performance and energy-efficient functional devices by taking advantage of Nanoparticle (NP) assemblies exhibiting specific, collective, plasmonic, electronic, or magnetic properties. More specifically, we will show how to elaborate sensors using such NP assemblies through bottom-up approaches and using chemically synthesized colloidal NPs of different sizes, shapes, compositions and surface coatings.
Finally, we will show how to exploit their specific physical properties and integrate them into devices to form smart sensors.
Dr LARRIEU Guilhem, LAAS-CNRS, University of Toulouse, Toulouse (France)
Dr Guilhem Larrieu, CR1-HDR CNRS researcher (LAAS), received the B.Sc. degree in material science and the Ph.D. degree in Electronics from the University of Lille, France, in 2000 and 2004, respectively. In 2005, he was a Post-doctoral fellow at University of Texas at Arlington (UTA), USA. At the end of 2005, he was hired by the IEMN-CNRS laboratory in Lille as a senior independent scientist and contributed to the metallic S/D FET topic by developing the dopant segregation technology. Finally, in 2010, he moved to LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse to establish in this laboratory a new research axis dealing with nanowire arrays for electronics and sensing applications. He is head of “Materials and Processes for nanoelectronics” group. His current research on nanowire-based devices includes silicon and III–V-based nanostructures and nanodevices ranging from material investigation (chemical/ physical properties) to processing, integration, and characterization of the related devices. Recently, they demonstrated the possibility to integrate vertical NW based 3D-transistors for ultimate nanoelectronics. Working in collaboration with bio related groups, he is developing innovative biosensing platforms based on nanoscale structures. He has regularly participated to or coordinated research proposals in response to local, national or European calls for projects (2 STREPs, 2 NoE, 1 coordination action). In addition to the several technical and management reports, his activity has involved the supervision of the research activities of 5 master students, 7 Ph.D. students and 2 Post-Doc researchers. He served in several international conferences as TPC co-chair (IEEE NMDC 2016) or as TPC member (IEDM2016/2017, DATE2017, EMRS2017). He is the author or co-author of more than 50 papers in scientific journals and holds 9 patents as principal investigator.
Si and III-V nanowire based transistors for nanoelectronics
Semiconductor nanowires have quickly attracted the interest of the scientific community thanks to their remarkable properties in terms of elastic relaxation, transport, electronic or optical confinement. Three-dimensional (3D) integration of such nanostructures is emerging as promising devices for a large spectrum of applications. In this lecture, we will review their potentiality for nanoelectronics and sensing applications. For electronics, the gate-all-around nanowire device is the ideal case for the electrostatic control of inversion charge and thus an excellent candidate for ultimate transistors. Vertical integration is a particularly attractive approach because of its extreme density integration (NWs arrays).
The transistor is much easier to manufacture, because the gate length is simply defined by the thickness of the deposited gate material. For sensing applications, the large surface/volume ratio is favorable to enhance the sensibility and interaction with the targeted species. We will address the challenges of nanostructure patterning, device integration and characterization.
Prof. MLAYAH Adnen, CMES-CNRS Laboratory, University of Toulouse, Toulouse (France)
Prof. Adnen Mlayah is a Professor at the physics department of Paul Sabatier University of Toulouse, and a researcher at “Centre d’Elaboration de Matériaux et d’Etudes Structurales”-CNRS, working in the field of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. He obtained his PhD in 1991 from Paul Sabatier University, and was hired as an assistant professor in 1993. Adnen Mlayah is a condensed Matter Physicist, focusing on the light-matter interaction and related spectroscopy techniques (Photoluminescence, absorption Raman, SERS, time-resolved). His research is dedicated to the study of elementary excitations in solids such as phonons, plasmons and excitons, and their fundamental properties in nanomaterials. The latter can be semiconductors, dielectric, metallic, magnetic or organic materials with a large surface/volume ratio, strong size and shape effects and/or particular spatial arrangement. The aim is to probe, to understand and to model the material properties at the nanometer scale, and to discover new physics leading to novel applications in diverse domains such as telecommunications, green energy (Storage, Photovoltaic, photocatalysis), nano-medicine (imaging and therapy) and water treatment (purification, filtration).
Optical properties and optoelectronic characterization. Plasmonic
Electron-electron interaction in metals, combined with dielectric surface discontinuity, are responsible for the appearance of strongly localized collective electronic excitations, the so-called surface plasmons. The latter have been predicted earlier by Ritchie  and proven experimentally by Powell and Swan  using electron energy loss spectroscopy. Since then, owing to the strong progress in top-down surface patterning techniques and chemistry-based bottom-up synthesis routes, there has been a rise of theoretical and experimental studies of the optical properties of metal nanoparticles . The interest lies in the fact that surface plasmons open a way to the engineering of light confinement, guidance, absorption and scattering with an unprecedented degree of precision and integration. As a matter of fact, with the same metal, for instance gold, light absorption can be tuned from the green region of the visible spectrum to the far infrared simply by changing the size and/or the shape of the metal nanoparticle . Moreover, because of the localized nature of the surface plasmons, light can be confined to a volume as small as a few nanometer cube, thus strongly enhancing the local electromagnetic field intensity. These basic idea have let to a new way of thinking optics.
In this lecture, I will first introduce the fundamental aspects of plasmonics, and describe few experiments that allowed to gain a deep understanding of the physics of surface plasmons. Then, I will discuss how research in plasmonics could be translated into applications. Health-care and life-science are the main application sectors of plasmonics. For instance, metal nanoparticles can efficiently absorb and scatter light and are therefore excellent candidates for cancer cell imaging and therapy. Moreover, a strategic sector, is the energy production, storage and distribution. In particular, the jump from the carbon era to the hydrogen era is a challenging task, currently addressed in several research labs. Hybrid metal/semiconductor nanoparticles may help to bridge the gap for efficient, low-coast and sustainable production of energy. I will address such applications and finally give some concluding remarks and perspectives.
 Ritchie R.H., Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films, Physical Review B 106 (1957)
 Powell J.C. and Swan J.B., Origin of the electron energy losses in aluminum, Physical Review B 115, (1959)
 Bohren and Huffman, absorption and scattering of light by small particles, Wiley GmbH (2004)
Prof. MORANCHO Frédéric, LAAS-CNRS, University of Toulouse, Toulouse (France)
Since September 2009, Frédéric Morancho has been a Professor at Paul Sabatier University. He is still working at LAAS-CNRS. From 2012 to 2016, he was the leader of the ISGE team which brought together approximately 30 researchers. Since June 2012, he is the leader of the « Energy Management » department which is composed of three research teams and approximately 60 reseachers.
He has authored and coauthored more than 100 publications in scientific international journals and conferences.
State of the art and trends in power semiconductor devices : from silicon to wide bandgap materials
Power electronics allows the efficient processing of electrical energy through means of electronic switching devices. Nowadays, 40% of the worldwide energy is consumed as electric energy and, therefore, power electronics plays a key role in its generation–storage–distribution cycle.
The largest portion of the power losses in power electronic converters is dissipated in their power semiconductor devices. Currently, these power devices are based on the mature and very well established Silicon (Si) technology although Si exhibits some important limitations regarding blocking voltage capability, operation temperature and switching frequency. These unavoidable physical limits reduce drastically the efficiency of current power converters, which requires among others, complex and expensive cooling systems and expensive passive components.
Consequently, a new generation of power devices based on wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor materials is expected for power converters. Wide bandgap semiconductors show superior material properties enabling potential power device operation at higher temperatures, voltages and switching speeds than current Si technology. As a result, a new generation of power devices is being developed for power converter applications in which traditional Si power devices show limited operation. The use of these new power semiconductor devices will allow both an important improvement in the performance of existing power converters and the development of new power converters, accounting for an increase in the efficiency of the electric energy transformations and a more rational use of the electric energy. At present, silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) are the more promising semiconductor materials for these new power devices as a consequence of their outstanding properties, commercial availability of starting material, and maturity of their technological processes. GaN-on-Si is a viable technology in the cost point of view, although they have more than 10% lattice mismatch and large difference of thermal expansion coefficient. One of the technologies to solve the problem is to introduce the super lattice between the GaN FET region and Si substrate, which achieved the quite low dislocation density with a mirror surface. The advantage of using Si is that large diameter, 6 or 8 inch, substrate is available, by which we can use the payout Si facilities. Thus, we expect GaN-on-Si technology is a strong candidate for the industrialization that reduce the initial manufacturing cost of GaN power devices.
This lecture will present a review of Si, SiC and GaN power devices in a first time and will then focuse on recent progresses in the development of GaN-based power semiconductor devices together with an overall view of the state of the art of this new device generation.
Prof. MORRIS James, Portland State University Portland (OR), USA
Jim is an IEEE Fellow and an IEEE Components, Packaging, & Manufacturing (CPMT) Society Distinguished Lecturer. He has served as CPMT Treasurer (1991-1997) and Vice-President for Conferences (1998-2003), on the Board of Governors (1996-1998, 2011-2016), and on the Oregon joint CPMT/CAS Chapter Exec. He was awarded the IEEE Millennium Medal and won the 2005 CPMT David Feldman Outstanding Contribution Award. He was an Associate-Editor of the IEEE CPMT Transactions for over 15 years and has been General Chair of three IEEE conferences, Treasurer or Program Chair of others, and serves on several CPMT conference committees. As the CPMT Society representative on the IEEE Nanotechnology Council (NTC), he instituted a regular Nanopackaging series of articles in the IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine, established the NTC Nanopackaging technical committee, was the 2010-2013 NTC Awards Chair, chaired the IEEE NANO 2011 conference, served as NTC Vice-President for Conferences (2013-2014) and is now NTC VP for Finance (2015-2018). He also co-founded the Oregon Chapter of the IEEE Education Society in 2005 and sits on its executive committee, and was Program Chair for the 1st and 2nd IEEE Conferences on Technology for Sustainability. He will be General Chair of NMDC 2018 in Portland.
His research activities are focused on electrically conductive adhesives, the electrical conduction mechanisms in discontinuous nanoparticle thin metal films, with applications to nanopackaging and single-electron transistor nanoelectronics, and on an NSF-funded project in undergraduate nanotechnology education. He has edited or co-authored five books on electronics packaging and two on nanodevices, (two of which have just been published in Chinese,) and lectures internationally on nanopackaging and electrically conductive adhesives.
Nanopackaging: Nanotechnologies for Microelectronics (DL #1)
Nanotechnologies offer a variety of materials options for reliability improvements in microelectronics packaging, primarily in the applications of nanoparticle composites, or in the exploitation of the superior properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Nanocomposite materials are studied for resistors, high-k dielectrics, electrically conductive adhesives, conductive “inks,” underfill fillers, and solder enhancements, while CNTs and graphene may also find thermal, interconnect, and shielding applications.
The talk will focus on these materials technologies, with some discussion of nanoparticle and CNT properties, a brief “Introduction to Electronics Packaging,” and some cautionary remarks on EHS issues in nanotechnologies manufacturing.
Dr PLISSARD Sébastien, LAAS-CNRS, University of Toulouse, Toulouse (France)
Dr Sébastien Plissard (36 y.o.) received his Ph.D. degree in Micro & Nano Electronics from the Grenoble Institute of Technologies, France, in 2007. In the last 10 years his research has revolved around the development of high mobility 2D heterostructures, the growth of III-V materials, and their characterizations: X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM, photoluminescence and Hall Effect measurements. Resulting from these studies, a new semiconductor optical amplifier at 1.7 micron was developed in collaboration with Thales and an original process of III-V integration on silicon was reported. In October 2010, he joined the Photonics and Semiconductor Nanophysics (PSN) group at TU/ Eindhoven to develop in collaboration with researchers from TU/ Delft high mobility nanowires grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. These InSb nanowires used in qubits and Majorana devices allowed the measurements of first signatures of Majorana fermions (Science 2012). Finally, in December 2013, he was hired by the LAAS‐CNRS laboratory in Toulouse as a senior independent scientist (CR2 CNRS) and contributed the growth of low bandgap III-V nanowires integrated on silicon.
State of the Art on lithography and manufacturing processes (Part II)
Academician Prof. STOJADINOVIĆ Ninoslav Faculty of Electronic, Engineering, University of Nis, Niš, Serbia & Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Belgrade, Serbia
Prof. Ninoslav D. Stojadinović (M’86-SM’98-F’03) received B.S. (1974), M.S. (1977) and Ph.D. (1980) degrees, all in electrical engineering, at the Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of Niš, Serbia, where he was professor at the Department of Microelectronics, Faculty Dean (1989-1994) and Department Head (1985-2005). He is member of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, and Academy of Engineering Sciences of Serbia. His research interest includes semiconductor device physics, device modeling and device reliability. He has authored or coauthored over 300 papers in the international journals and conference proceedings, and mentored 15 Ph.D theses. He is IEEE ED/SSC Serbia&Montenegro Chapter Chair, IEEE EDS Distinguished Lecturer (since 1997), Chairman of IEEE International Conference on Microelectronics – MIEL, Editor-in-Chief of Microelectronics Reliability, and Editor-in-Chief of Facta Universitatis: Electronics and Energetics. He was Editor-in-Chief of IEEE EDS Newsletter (2002-2013).
NBTI and Radiation Related Degradation and Lifetime Estimation in Power VDMOSFETs
Development of advanced electronic industry is based on combining two concepts: More Moore (miniaturization) and More than Moore (diversification), i.e. on combining of System-on-Chip and System-in-Package concepts, thus leading to higher value systems. Second concept includes integration of different devices, such as passives, analog/RF, power devices, sensors and actuators and biochips. This lecture will be devoted to reliability problems of power VDMOSFETs (Vertical Double Diffused MOSFETs), i.e. to their NBT (Negative Bias Temperature) stress and radiation related degradation and related lifetime estimation.
Threshold voltage shifts associated with NBT instability in power VDMOSFETs under the static and pulsed stress conditions are analyzed in terms of the effects on device lifetime. For that purpose, the method suitable for performing fast NBT instability measurements on power VDMOSFETs is proposed, and its practical implementation using simple boosting circuit for obtaining required gate stress voltage, and sweep I-V measurements for the threshold voltage shift determination will be presented. Experimental results will be discussed in terms of time necessary to perform interim measurements during NBT stress tests, and it will be shown that the measurements could be done fast enough to intercept dynamic recovery effect in these devices.
It should be emphasized that the pulsed bias stressing is found to cause less significant threshold voltage shifts in comparison with those caused by the static stressing.. Accordingly, pulsed gate bias conditions provide much longer device lifetime than the static ones, which is shown by individual use of the 1/VG and 1/T models for extrapolation to normal operation voltage and temperature, as well as by combined use of both models for a double extrapolation successively along both voltage and temperature axes. A double extrapolation approach is shown to allow for construction of the surface area representing the lifetime values corresponding to a full range of device operating voltages and temperatures.
The results of consecutive irradiation and NBT stress experiments performed on power VDMOSFETs will be also presented. It is shown that irradiation of previously NBT stressed devices leads to further increase of threshold voltage shift, while NBT stress effects in previously irradiated devices may depend on gate bias applied during irradiation and on the total dose received.
In the case of low-dose irradiation or irradiation without gate bias, the subsequent NBT stress seems to lead to further device degradation, whereas in the case of devices previously irradiated to high doses or with gate bias applied during irradiation, NBT stress seems to have positive role as it practically anneals a part of radiation-induced degradation.
Prof. ZHANG Qing, University of Singapore, (Singapore)
Currently, Qing Zhang is Director of Director of NOVITAS, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence in School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, NTU, in which a wide range of sensors and sensing technologies are under investigations. He is the chairman for Symposium of Nanodevices and Nanofabrication in International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2005, ICMAT2007, ICMAT2009, ICMAT2011, ICMAT2013 and ICMAT2015, respectively. He is also the general chair of IEEE NMDC2017.
Flexible Electronics with Carbon Nanotubes
The structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be easily regarded as graphene sheets ‘rolling up’ along certain directions into nanometer sized cylinders. CNTs can be grouped into single walled CNTs and multiwalled CNTs. 2 out of 3 single walled CNTs are of the energy band gaps and show semiconducting properties. In contrast, 1 out of 3 single walled CNTs and multi-walled CNTs do not have the band gaps and they demonstrate metallic properties. No matter what CNTs, they share a common merit, i.e., a high mechanical flexibility, which makes them an excellent flexible material for electronic devices. This talk will focus on recent developments in flexible electronic devices based on carbon nanotubes, including flexible logic circuits, sensors memories and energy storage devices, etc.